By John E. Herman
In 1200, what's now southwest China--Guizhou, Yunnan, and the southern component to Sichuan was once domestic to an collection of strikingly diversified cultures and governed via a large number of political entities. by way of 1750, China's army, political, sociocultural, and fiscal associations have been firmly in charge of the sector, and plenty of of the area's cultures have been speedily turning into extinct. One function of this booklet is to ascertain how China's 3 past due imperial dynasties--the Yuan, Ming, and Qing--conquered, colonized, and assumed keep an eye on of the southwest. one other goal is to spotlight the indigenous reaction to China's colonization of the southwest, really that of the Nasu Yi humans of western Guizhou and jap Yunnan, the one staff to go away an in depth written list.
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Additional resources for Amid the Clouds and Mist: China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200-1700
Even those members of the sujie strata who could trace their ancestry to na and quna origins were prohibited from marrying non-na people. Wuman society, thus, followed the principle of strict en dogamy to one's castelike stratum. Initial Chinese descriptions of the wurnan (Nasu Yi) aside, the Tang strategy of establishing an additional buffer zone of four dependent kingdoms between itself and Nanzhao proved fortuitous. In crafting these four dependent kingdoms, Tang officials had taken note of Nanzhao's expansionist ambitions since its withdrawal from Chengdu in 830.
More striking, the average annual rainfall for the Shuixi re gion ranges between 700 and 900 millimeters, whereas central and southeast Guizhou receive an average annual rainfall of between 1 ,400 and 1 ,600 millimeters. The Shuixi region, due to its rugged terrain and inhospitable climate, has a reputation, at least in Guizhou, as a remote, backward region where drought, famine, and poverty are common. J , , , The Origins of the Mu'ege Kingdom i • 1 Recent Yi scholarship has determined that during the first and second centuries CE, the Heng, Bu, and Mo patriclans traveled east from the Luyang Mountains toward the Wumeng Mountains.
By this time, how ever, any claim of resurrecting the Mu'ege polity had been shorn of political legitimacy, and in its wake emerged a number of smaller, frag mented, and territorially discrete Nasu Yi domains. In the final chapter, Chapter 6, I describe how Qing armies under Wu Sangui ( 1 6 1 2-78) first occupied Shuixi during the campaigns against the Southern Ming ( 1644-62 ) and then replaced many of the territory's Ming tusi offices with Qing political units, prefectures, de partments, and counties in a frantic effort to mobilize the economic re sources of Shuixi to assist in Wu's consolidation of power over the southwest.
Amid the Clouds and Mist: China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200-1700 by John E. Herman
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